Dr Norman Swan

Current evidence base for medical cannabis with Dr Norman Swan produced in association with Tonic Health Media

Whether you’re driving, travelling or carrying medical cannabis, you’ve probably got some questions.

Medical Cannabis Factsheets

Cannabinoid factsheet

(Coming Soon)

Cannabinoid Therapeutics factsheet

Books and movies

We are always being asked which books to read to learn about medical cannabis.

We have pulled together some books and movies that you may find helpful. We will add to this list as we come across good resources.

Administration Routes

Pros and Cons of Medical Cannabis Edibles

Vaping vs Smoking

Administration Routes Comparison Table

Method

Inhalation

Ingestion

Sublingual

Topical

Forms

  • Vape
  • Smoke
  • Floss
  • Oil

  • Capsule
  • Oil
  • Juicing
  • Edibles

  • Drops
  • Spray
  • Lozenge
  • Wafer
  • Tincture
  • Oil

  • Cream
  • Gel
  • Salve

Absorption

Lungs

Stomach and/or small intestine

Through oral mucosa into bloodstream

At external local application site

Bioavailability

  • THC ~ 5-35%
  • CBD ~ 31%
  • Almost immediate

THC/CBD ~4-20% ~2-6 hrs after Ingestion

Studies of bioavailability not available

Studies of bioavailability not available

Onset

Rapid

90 mins

15-60 mins

unknown

Peak

30 mins

2-3 hrs

1-2 hrs

unknown

Duration

1-4 hrs

6-8 hrs

1-4 hrs

unknown

Comments

Vaping is recommended over smoking

Absorption impacted by stomach contents, carrier medium, type of capsule – some capsules designed to increase bioavailability

Important to hold under the tongue rather than swallow to increase absorption directly into blood stream

Can be used on rashes. Does not penetrate the deeper layers of the aqueous skin efficiently. Does not cause any ‘high’ related to THC.

Inhalation

Forms
  • Vape
  • Smoke
  • Floss
  • Oil
Absorption
Lungs
Bioavailability
  • THC ~ 5-35%
  • CBD ~ 31%
  • Almost immediate
Onset
Rapid
Peak
30 mins
Duration
1-4 hrs
Comments
Vaping is recommended over smoking

Ingestion

Forms
  • Capsule
  • Oil
  • Juicing
  • Edibles
Absorption
Stomach and/or small intestine
Bioavailability
THC/CBD ~4-20% ~2-6 hrs after Ingestion
Onset
90 mins
Peak
2-3 hrs
Duration
6-8 hrs
Comments
Absorption impacted by stomach contents, carrier medium, type of capsule – some capsules designed to increase bioavailability

Sublingual

Forms
  • Drops
  • Spray
  • Lozenge
  • Wafer
  • Tincture
  • Oil
Absorption
Through oral mucosa into bloodstream
Bioavailability
Studies of bioavailability not available
Onset
15-60 mins
Peak
1-2 hrs
Duration
1-4 hrs
Comments
Important to hold under the tongue rather than swallow to increase absorption directly into blood stream

Topical

Forms
  • Cream
  • Gel
  • Salve
Absorption
At external local application site
Bioavailability
Studies of bioavailability not available
Onset
unknown
Peak
unknown
Duration
unknown
Comments
Can be used on rashes. Does not penetrate the deeper layers of the aqueous skin efficiently. Does not cause any ‘high’ related to THC.
Everyday Living with Medicinal Cannabis

Understanding Drug to Drug interactions with Medical Cannabis

Just about all chemical compounds, including prescription, over-the-counter and herbal formulations and some foods can potentially interact with each other. And cannabis-based products are no different.

Published Academic Articles

Disorders of cancer metabolism: The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids

Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 2023

General

Clinical outcome data of chronic pain patients treated with cannabis-based oils and dried flower from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry

Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Apr 2023

Chronic Pain (non-cancer)

Neurobiology of Cannabinoids and Medical Cannabis in Therapeutic Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis: Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Book Chapter, 2023

Multiple Sclerosis

Recorded Lectures and Interviews

Recorded lectures by eminent international researchers, physicians and advocates in the world of medical cannabis

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